Sunday, May 24, 2020

Culture Shock And The Effect On International Business

Culture shock and the effect on international business Culture Shock as defined by : A sense of confusion and uncertainty sometimes with feelings of anxiety that may affect people exposed to an alien culture or environment without adequate preparation Kohls (1979) defined culture shock as â€Å"the term used for the pronounced reactions to the psychological disorientation that is experienced in varying degrees when spending an extended period of time in a new environment†. Stages/Phases of Culture Shock: According to What is Culture Shock, and What Can I do to Avoid it? (n.d.) (Retrieved January 3, 2015). Culture shock has three to five phases, depending on which source you read. According to The Stages of Culture Shock (Retrieved 2015) there are typically four stages people go through with culture shock. So depending on where one is doing business you will experience some or all of the stages/phases and will have some impact based on the cultural differences between your home and your new location, and how long one is away from home, a person may or may not experience all the stages/phases listed below. Stage 1 – Excitement or (The Honeymoon - Phase 1): The individual experiences a holiday or honeymoon period with their new surroundings. Stage 2 – Withdrawal or (The Honeymoon is Over - Phase 2): The individual now has some more face to face experience of the culture and starts to find things different, strange andShow MoreRelated Culture Schock Essay1171 Words   |  5 Pages Culture in ancient times was defined as â€Å"the sum total of the equipment of the human individual, which enables him to be attuned to his immediate environment on the historical past on the other†. It reflects in effect what humans have added to Nature. It comprises the spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of a society and includes, in addition to the arts and letters, the value systems, traditions, modes of life and beliefs of the society. It also absorbs from other culturesRead MoreImpact Of Globalization On Business Management Essay1459 Words   |  6 PagesBUS 1101: PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT The Impact of Management in Globalization of Business. Globalization is the process in which a business or organization start operating on an international scale. The effects of Globalization have created an immediate change in Business Management. As stated by the website â€Å"Globalization on Business Management is interconnection of international markets managing business in a global industry. This includes foreign investments whereRead MoreInformation On Culture Shock : How Employees Identity Is The Impact By Culture959 Words   |  4 Pagesarchived on culture shock. How employees identity is the impact by culture. Dealing with organizations how training plays an important role on teaching employees how to overcome the negative effects of culture shock. A given explanation would be on how women work in the new environment today. And finally, a brief discussion on what is the work ethic of the new region. What is culture shock? Culture is believed to be a shared system of attitudes, values, beliefs and behavior. Hofstede (2003) culture is learnedRead MoreThe Impact Of Management On The Globalization Of Business900 Words   |  4 Pagesthe globalization of business. The multinational corporation The impact of globalization on international business International business refers to a wide range of business activities undertaken across national borders. Along with rapidly increasing globalization, international business has become a popular topic and has drawn the attention of business executives, government officials and academics. International business is different from domestic business. At the international level, the globalizationRead MoreCross-Cultural Business Behavior Model1743 Words   |  7 Pagesauthor of a cross-cultural business behavior model. In his model he names 4 set of attributes. Each set has 2 contrary traits. We have: * relationship-focused and deal-focused business cultures * formal and informal business cultures * polychronic and monochromic business cultures * reserved and expressive business cultures We present each set of attributes in a table to simplify the content: Relationship-focused business cultures | Deal-focused business cultures | People are usually reluctantRead MoreSocio Cultural Presentation1275 Words   |  6 PagesPresentation on Social and Cultural Environment Presented by: Shera Gopaulsingh School of Business and Computer Sciences Date: March 21st, 2015 Social Environment ï  ½ ï  ½ ï  ½ Social environment of business means all the factors which affects business socially. Every business works in a society, so societies’ different factors like family, educational institutions and religion affects business. It includes the culture that the individual was educated or lives in, and the people with whom they interactRead MoreIntelligence Between Intelligence And Culture1730 Words   |  7 PagesThere is a relationship between intelligence and culture because intelligence is culturally shaped and defined and some cultures support and identify it as very vital in the context of social and ecological aspects. In the early years, there was a bias towards intelligence tests because they used English language and culture. The formation of Wesler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Addition (WAIS,IV) in 2008 by David Wesler was meant to minimise the bias. According to Westen, Burton and KowalskiRead MoreCulture Shock And How Does It Affect The International Business? Essay1963 Words   |  8 PagesWhat is the culture shock and how does it affect the international business? Culture shock is defined as the feeling of uncertainty and at times confusion or even anxiety that a person or group of people experience on the occasions that they encounter a new culture. The visits can be for various reasons such as doing business or living in a community that has different beliefs and values regarding life from theirs. Various reasons can lead to culture shock. Some of these reasons comprise of beingRead MoreGlobalization and Organizational Behavior1049 Words   |  5 PagesOrganizational behavior is a field of study that studies individuals groups, and structure. Organizational behavior applies the knowledge gained about individuals, groups, and the effect of structure on behavior in order to make organizations work more effectively (Robbins,2014).Gaining an understanding of globalization and its effect on organizational behavior is crucial to interacting effectively in the modern global economy. Globalization affects an organization’s behavior in severa l ways like stimulatingRead MoreGlobalization Is The World Moving Toward Economy, Finance, And Services Across National Frontiers1207 Words   |  5 Pages Globalization is the process which makes connections among the people, companies, governments and different nations through international trade and investments aided by information technology. Globalization brings the world people to one community. According to globalization is the world moving toward its economy, finance, and trade and communication integration. Globalization exists to the opening of the local surroundings and to the nationalistic perspectives to which

Thursday, May 14, 2020

English Translations of the Bible Essay - 1988 Words

The efforts for translating the Bible from its original languages, i.e. Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek began many years ago. Its being the reference book for the religion was the main idea which feed up those efforts. Every people wants to understand how he begs and prays to God according to the sacred book. Not only Bible but also many other holy books were translated into another languages. The Bible is the bestseller in many English speaking countries today. The reason for this is especially the US, whose founding base still lies behind religion. The first efforts of translating the Bible into English began about two millenniums ago. Partial translations of the book can be traced back to the 7th century. There are many manuscripts written†¦show more content†¦At that time, only the church attendants had some priorities before God and Latin was the official language of the church, but the language was taught only to the members of clergymen. By that way, the church had all the advantage of religion and used it very smart. Reformation is the last period in which we can see people under the pressure of the church as the only owner and ruler of Christianity. After this period, printing press became popular and the people had access to books, which helped increasing literacy rates and so people began to read the Bible on their own. That development pushed the writers to translate Bible into English so that a reformation in Anglo-Saxon church could be conveyed. Middle English translations began with Ormulum, whose reading is as just difficult as its predecessors. These translations were again partly, but most importantly the texts were written in verse with literary concerns and the texts were written to be read at some special time of the year, for example for Christmas. This was a handicap for the people of the English speaking countries. Nobody but only the churches had the access to only some parts of the Bible. In addition, the translations of this perio d contained so much commentary that the real version cannot be obtained and every different text had something different to tell. Many originalShow MoreRelatedMy Letter By Myles Coverdale853 Words   |  4 Pageson â€Å"Understanding our Bible† Today we pick up with a look at the Coverdale translation† COVERDALE: Myles Coverdale was born in 1488, very little is known about his early life.  , Coverdale became an  Augustinian  friar. He was at the house of the Augustinians. In 1535 Coverdale produced the first complete printed translation of the Bible into English.  Ã‚  He became a important leader in religious history.  Ã‚  His theological development is a paradigm of the progress of the  English Reformation  from 1530 toRead MoreWilliam Coverdale ( 1488-1569 ), The Great Bible911 Words   |  4 PagesThe Great Bible The atmosphere changed in England as Rome and Henry the VIII came into conflict. Henry the VII wanted to divorce his Catholic wife, Katherine of Aragon, the Catholic Church refused. When the Pope refused, Henry VII renounced the Catholic Church and appointed himself head of the Church of England. To spite the Catholic Church and unify his kingdom, he ordered the Bible printed and translated into English, and placed in all the churches, the translation they placedRead MoreThe Magna Carte, The Declaration Of Independence, And But The Communist Manifesto1534 Words   |  7 Pagesshape humanity. The Bible has had perhaps more impact on humanity than any other Document ever written. Many people read the Bible, but know little of the history of the Bible itself. The history of the Bible is a fascinating story of the creation of the Bible versions seen today. Many people are familiar with at least some of the contents of the Bible, but the average person knows little of the people, processes, and events involved in its creation and translations. The Bible is a collection ofRead MoreHistory of the Bible Essay1727 Words   |  7 PagesStewart Instructor Pursell English 132 9 December 2009 The History of the Canonization of the Bible The process by which the English Bible, as it is known to the English culture today, was compiled is an extraordinary thing to see. The Bible consists of two parts: the Old Testament and the New Testament. The process by which both Testaments were written and then canonized into one book transpired over a period of many years. Once the canonization of the Bible officially came to an end, itRead MoreThe King James Bible Remains The Most Significant Book1137 Words   |  5 PagesThe King James Bible remains the most significant book of all English literature to date, however, a substantial part of the population appears to be ignorant of the history of Bible translation. In this essay, the reader will go through some of the principal names in the history of Bible translation. Particularly important questions will be answered such as, â€Å"What are the consequences that ran upwards to the translation of these texts?† â€Å"What are the pros and cons of this translation?†, in additionRead MoreChanges Due to English Evolution Affect Integrity of the Bible1705 Words   |  7 Pagescontrol of the Holy Bible without many recorded challenges for more than one thousand years, according to several historical documents. Church authorities told church members they could neither read nor interpret the text themselves. The principles clergy taught in church were what churchgoers often believed. Eventually, a high-ranking German monk named Martin Luther challenged church officials in the 16th century and began reading and interpreting the Scriptures. As he studied the Bible, he found manyRead MoreHistory And Historical Context Of The Old Testament1684 Words   |  7 PagesThe history of how the Bible came into existence has been explored for centuries and is an active area of study today. There are many facets to the Bible and each has its own set of unique characteristics and teachings. The Old Testament is considered a contemporary guide for daily living , even though it was composed hundreds of years ago. Where did the Old Testament come from? What are some of the influences that shaped the Old Testament? What are the significant events of the Old TestamentRead MoreDamn It Essay1285 Words   |  6 PagesThe word damn entered the English language from the Old French word damne-r during the Middle English period and first appeared in writing in the early 14th c. (OED s.v. damn). In Latin the word dampnÄ -re meant to damage, hurt or condemn, which, with the suffix con-, meaning together or intensive, became the French and English word which is more or less condemn. It did not get it’s current spelling until the 16th century; before it was sometimes spelled dampne or dam before settling down andRead MoreWhich Bible Translation? Essay1341 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"The Bible is a special revelation from God to man of truths concerning Himself, His purposes, His plans, His will, man and his sinful nature, and Godâ€℠¢s redemptive plan for man.† This quote by Gene Nowlin in his book The Paraphrased Perversion of the Bible summarizes the composition of the Bible. Throughout life, Christians grasp tightly to these words of God in hopes to inherit the Kingdom of God one day. In order to do this, they must study the Bible closely and apply it to their lives daily.Read More Essay on Religion in the Works of William Shakespeare1720 Words   |  7 PagesCatholic nation. Before Shakespeares lifetime, a strange and drastic change occurred that completely upended the existing Catholicism of the English people. During King Henry VIIIs reign, the English people were, for the most part, content with Catholicism. Through a series of very complex political maneuvers, Henry eventually seized power of the English church. The benefits of this control were enormous for the state. First of all, Henry obtained his divorce from his first wife. Second, the state

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Ghetto By Mitchell Duneier - 1048 Words

Ghetto, is a well-written compilation of our histories best sociologists and their experiences, views, and ideas of the well know European and American ghettos. This book looks deeply into the invention of the Jewish ghettos back in Italy in the 1500’s, Jewish ghettos in the World War II era, and the black ghettos of Chicago, Harlem, and other large cities in the early 1940’s through our current period. The author, Mitchell Duneier, took the work of some of the world’s most renowned artifacts of history and of today and wrote a book that is directly correlated to the devastated of racism, segregation, and discrimination. The book describes the direct outcome of â€Å"white supremacy† in the eras of time that induced the ghetto. Without clearly describing the beginning of the ghetto, one cannot fully understand the true history and meaning. I believe that Duneier put together an empowering piece of work that does just that. He thoroughly brings you back to the beginning and gives you a true sense of the concept. He not only uses social scientists and their work, but he brings you in in a way that feels like you are actually there. His descriptive nature and feeling behind his work allows one to truly feel the emotions he put into it. I now feel that I have a more in tuned sense of history and understanding of the meaning behind something that was and still is such a big part of us as Americans. I think the purpose of writing this book is for people to understand the reasons whyShow MoreRelatedEssay about Slims Table: The Life Of A Working Class Black Person1082 Words   |  5 PagesBlack Person Slims Table, written by Mitchell Duneier has been called a true stereotype buster due to its content in which it truthfully examines the lifestyles of working class black men. The book is designed to break the common misconceptions imbedded in a majority of peoples minds over how a black man lives his life and why he in a sense does what he does, thinks what he thinks, and acts the way he acts. Prior to the writing of this book by Duneier, there were many common stereotypes ofRead MoreUrban Poverty: The Underclass Essay2609 Words   |  11 Pages In tackling the problem of urban poverty, William Julius Wilson calls for a revitalization of the liberal perspective in the ghetto underclass debate. He claims that liberals dominated the discussions with compelling and intelligent arguments until the advent of the controversial Moynihan report in 1965, which claimed that â€Å"at the heart of the deterioration of the Negro society is the deterioration of the Negro family† (Moynihan), After that, liberals avoided any research that might

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Douglas and barlow Essay Example For Students

Douglas and barlow Essay Language and education are key factors in determining how hard it will be for a person to become successful in this country. Barlow explains this better because he isn’t as focused on telling his own story. Barlow definitely explains his point better than Douglas. Douglas tells more of a short story concerning a personal experience, while Barlow discusses the topic and several options. Barlow starts his column off by illustrating a book he read his first year of teaching. The story is about Hyman Kaplan, a German Jewish immigrant in his forties who is enrolled in a class titled â€Å"American Night Preparatory School for Adults†. The story illustrates how he is learning the English language. He is reminded of this story by a story on television about two non-English speakers who were refused service at a bar somewhere in the state of Washington. He compares these two stories he brings up the controversial subject of, the problems with educating non-English speaking stud ents. He brings up different points concerning this subject, although every solution has its pros and cons. Douglas talks about his struggle in the early part of his life; learning to read and write was a great challenge in his environment. He talks about his personal experiences. This column is mainly a short story of his life as a slave. How he had to sneak around to read, or to teach himself how to write. Another key part of his column is where he talks about the emotionally crippling experience he went through learning how to further his thinking process. When he learned to read he discovered a part of him that he couldn’t deny or ignore. He learned about freedom and conceived the opinion that every human deserved freedom, no matter what race or color. These two authors are both illustrating problems that we have delt with or are currently dealing with in our society. Both concern rights of different ethnic groups. Both authors explain the pros and cons of the situation being addressed. It is interesting that both columns contain someone that is struggling to learn to read and write in English. Barlow’s column deals with English education of non-American immigrants and Douglass’s column deals with English education of an American. We are currently dealing with both of these problems in today’s society. We have several ways of teaching people of different ethnic groups the English language. The concepts regarding whether or not we should make all citizens of this country learn to read, write and speak the English language, and hoe we g about teaching it if we do differ in different pars of the country. That is one of the subjects brought up n Barlow’s column. Should we make a certain strategy obligatory? Douglas doesn’t discuss this problem directly, but this problem surfaces in his column.The subjects discussed in both columns share a common discourse community. They both are learning different aspects of the English language. Douglass is a great example for Barlow’s arguments. Douglass didn’t have any options in his learning style; he had to learn the only way he could. Times have definitely changed since Douglas’s story. Now, slavery is abolished and there are equal rights for all races and ethnic groups in our country. However his story still relates in the common racial problems. Douglas being treated un-humanely because of his race, and the Mexican patrons in Barlow’s column being treated unfairly in the bar. Barlow brings up several options, they all have there pros and cons in the aspect of which one is the best action, but they all will accomplish the task that Douglass accomplished: learning the English language. Racism is a big issue in both columns also. It is another discourse community both Douglass and the Mexican patrons belong to. Even though as stated above, slavery has been abolished there is still racial problems between blacks and whites. There are racial problems between most races. The Mexican patrons in Barlow’s column are refused service in the bar because of their race. Douglass is refused freedom in general because of his race. Barlow’s arguments on immigrant education are still a big issue in our society, and the racial issues in Douglass’s story are still evident in a lot of situations. It is ironic how Douglass’s dated arguments can be compared to Barlow’s current arguments. Back in the era of slavery it would not have made sense to compare these arguments, the main reason being that non-English speaking immigrants were so sparse that it wasn’t a problem. But in today’s society the two columns have a lot of common arguments. Fixing one problem migh t fix the other or it might not affect it at all. That is why Douglass’s racial issue is still a controversial issue to this day. Although we have made an unprecedented amount of laws and regulations to fix racial conflicts, the problem still exist, although it is better, it still exists. .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46 , .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46 .postImageUrl , .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46 , .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46:hover , .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46:visited , .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46:active { border:0!important; } .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46:active , .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46 .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u331cf68d35eb4c56c36fbb1df919ac46:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: History Of The Department Of Homeland SecurityThe style in which Barlow represents his subject is definitely clearer and it gives you several options and examples. Douglas leaves you to form your own opinions and remedies. Barlow actually discusses the education problem, and hits on several key points. Barlow’s essay is a lot more educational on the problems discussed. And we should have a better way of dealing with this controversial subject of race and education. We need to remember that the United States of America stands for freedom. This country is made up of immigrants, and how we could forget that and start stripping African American’s, or Hispanics of their humane rights because they are from a different country and ethnic group is uncomprehendable. We do need to deal with this situation in an orderly manner, but we shouldn’t have to deal with this situation at all considering why this country was established and what it is supposed to represent. The education problem is understandable and also need to be delt with in an orderly manner. That is a very important standard in this country. Everyone should have the opportunity to get an education if they want one. Over all we have done a good job on providing equal opportunities for education in this country for the past two decades, and there is no doubt it will only improve. Bibliography:

Sunday, April 5, 2020

A List of Radioactive Elements

A List of Radioactive Elements This is a list or table of elements that are radioactive. Keep in mind, all elements can have radioactive isotopes. If enough neutrons are added to an atom, it becomes unstable and decays. A good example of this is tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen naturally present at extremely low levels. This table contains the elements that have no stable isotopes. Each element is followed by the most stable known isotope and its half-life. Note increasing atomic number doesnt necessarily make an atom more unstable. Scientists predict there may be islands of stability in the periodic table, where superheavy transuranium elements may be more stable (although still radioactive) than some lighter elements.This list is sorted by increasing atomic number. Radioactive Elements Element Most Stable Isotope Half-lifeof Most Stable Istope Technetium Tc-91 4.21 x 106 years Promethium Pm-145 17.4 years Polonium Po-209 102 years Astatine At-210 8.1 hours Radon Rn-222 3.82 days Francium Fr-223 22 minutes Radium Ra-226 1600 years Actinium Ac-227 21.77 years Thorium Th-229 7.54 x 104 years Protactinium Pa-231 3.28 x 104 years Uranium U-236 2.34 x 107 years Neptunium Np-237 2.14 x 106 years Plutonium Pu-244 8.00 x 107 years Americium Am-243 7370 years Curium Cm-247 1.56 x 107 years Berkelium Bk-247 1380 years Californium Cf-251 898 years Einsteinium Es-252 471.7 days Fermium Fm-257 100.5 days Mendelevium Md-258 51.5 days Nobelium No-259 58 minutes Lawrencium Lr-262 4 hours Rutherfordium Rf-265 13 hours Dubnium Db-268 32 hours Seaborgium Sg-271 2.4 minutes Bohrium Bh-267 17 seconds Hassium Hs-269 9.7 seconds Meitnerium Mt-276 0.72 seconds Darmstadtium Ds-281 11.1 seconds Roentgenium Rg-281 26 seconds Copernicium Cn-285 29 seconds Nihonium Nh-284 0.48 seconds Flerovium Fl-289 2.65 seconds Moscovium Mc-289 87 milliseconds Livermorium Lv-293 61 milliseconds Tennessine Unknown Oganesson Og-294 1.8 milliseconds Where Do Radionuclides Come From? Radioactive elements form naturally, as a result of nuclear fission, and via intentional synthesis in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators. Natural Natural radioisotopes may remain from nucleosynthesis in stars and supernova explosions. Typically these primordial radioisotopes have half-lives so long they are stable for all practical purposes, but when they decay they form what are called secondary radionuclides. For example, primordial isotopes thorium-232, uranium-238, and uranium-235 can decay to form secondary radionuclides of radium and polonium. Carbon-14 is an example of a cosmogenic isotope. This radioactive element is continually formed in the atmosphere due to cosmic radiation. Nuclear Fission Nuclear fission from nuclear power plants and thermonuclear weapons produces radioactive isotopes called fission products. In addition, irradiation of surrounding structures and the nuclear fuel produces isotopes called activation products. A wide range of radioactive elements may result, which is part of why nuclear fallout and nuclear waste are so difficult to deal with. Synthetic The latest element on the periodic table have not been found in nature. These radioactive elements are produced in nuclear reactors and accelerators. There are different strategies used to form new elements. Sometimes elements are placed within a nuclear reactor, where the neutrons from the reaction react with the specimen to form desired products. Iridium-192 is an example of a radioisotope prepared in this manner. In other cases, particle accelerators bombard a target with energetic particles. An example of a radionuclide produced in an accelerator is fluorine-18. Sometimes a specific isotope is prepared in order to gather its decay product. For example, molybdenum-99 is used to produce technetium-99m. Commercially Available Radionuclides Sometimes the longest-lived half-life of a radionuclide is not the most useful or affordable. Certain common isotopes are available even to the general public in small quantities in most countries. Others on this list are available by regulation to professionals in industry, medicine, and science: Gamma Emitters Barium-133Cadmium-109Cobalt-57Cobalt-60Europium-152Manganese-54Sodium-22Zinc-65Technetium-99m Beta Emitters Strontium-90Thallium-204Carbon-14Tritium Alpha Emitters Polonium-210Uranium-238 Multiple Radiation Emitters Cesium-137Americium-241 Effects of Radionuclides on Organisms Radioactivity exists in nature, but radionuclides can cause radioactive contamination and radiation poisonin if find their way into the environment or an organism is over-exposed. The type of potential damage depends on the type and energy of the emitted radiation. Typically, radiation exposure causes burns and cell damage. Radiation can cause cancer, but it might not appear for many years following exposure. Sources International Atomic Energy Agency ENSDF database (2010).Loveland, W.; Morrissey, D.; Seaborg, G.T. (2006). Modern Nuclear Chemistry. Wiley-Interscience. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-471-11532-8.Luig, H.; Kellerer, A. M.; Griebel, J. R. (2011). Radionuclides, 1. Introduction. Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a22_499.pub2 ISBN 978-3527306732.Martin, James (2006). Physics for Radiation Protection: A Handbook. ISBN 978-3527406111.Petrucci, R.H.; Harwood, W.S.; Herring, F.G. (2002). General Chemistry (8th ed.). Prentice-Hall. p.1025–26.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

John Piaget essays

John Piaget essays Jean Piaget developed a theory that states that children develop cognitively through four developmental stages, sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, and formal. The first stage of the cognitive development theory is called the sensorimotor stage. This stage takes place from birth until the age of two. During the sensorimotor stage the infant learns by combining their senses (sight, sound, taste, touch, smell) with their motor skills. The sensorimotor infant begins with basic reflexes, then develops the ability to use more complex manipulations of objects. The second stage of cognitive development is referred to as the pre-operational stage. The pre-operational stage takes place from the ages of two years until the age of seven years. The majority of their new learning involves the use of symbols, language, and their imagination. A child in the pre-operational stage has no sense of logic and is egocentric, they can only view the world through their own perspective The stage following pre-operational is called concrete operational. In the concrete operational stage the child is still using symbols, however; he is able to apply logic to the symbols. Children in concrete operational do not act intuitively, they are able to use reasoning - provided that there are concrete examples. The final cognitive developmental stage is called the formal operational stage. In this stage, the young adult is able to apply logic to abstract thinking. They are able to deal with complicated problems and apply reason. Piaget considered formal operational the final stage of cognitive development because it is the highest level of learning that the individual will achieve. ...

Friday, February 21, 2020

Food security Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Food security - Essay Example This paper aims at looking at the effect of consumption of junk food in the USA. Over the past years, it has been noted that the rate at which obesity cases have been increasing in the United States of America is wanting. One of the reasons as to why this trend is believed to exist is because of the increase in the rate at which the United States of America consumes junk food (Smith 111). A research carried in the year 2010 by a journal, it was found that a fast food lunch package for a single person would have calorie content of up to 850 calories (Lambert 2). However, recent studies have discovered that the calorie content would get to 1000 calories. Given the fact that women usually need less calories daily as compared to men they are the most affected by the consumption of junk food (Napoli 3). According to a study that was carried out in the year 2012 junk food consumption was discovered to be the most common of the behavioral causes of obesity in the USA (Pereira 38). Apart from the fact that the consumption of junk food is commonly associated with obesity, excessive consumption of junk food can also lead to diseases such as diabetes. This is particularly very true for the case of junk food consumers in the United States of America (Collins). According to a study carried out by Lancet people who consume junk food about four times in a week have higher risks of getting type 2 diabetes. This is particularly backed by studies that were carried out by a number of hospitals in the United States of America, which led to the discovery that a majority of patients that were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were regular junk food consumers (Currie 22). The reason given for this increase is the fact that people who consume junk food regularly gain more weight, which lead to an increase in insulin resistance (St-Onge, Keller, and Heymsfield 1071). This state occurs as a result of the failure of the hormone insulin in the regulation of the levels of glucose

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Philospher Friedrich Nietzsche Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Philospher Friedrich Nietzsche - Essay Example Since Nietzsche was clearly concerned with the question of whether good and evil exist in the world, Zarathustra is a natural focus for his attention. In considering the question of suicide, the first chapter where Zarathustra comes down from the mountain is significant: from his lofty position, "Zarathustra wants to become man again" (Nietzsche, page 122). The old man criticizes him: "You lived in your solitude as in the seaAlas, would you now climb ashore Alas, would you again drag your own body" (Nietzsche, page 123). This is a question of life and death - Zarathustra, who has been free of his mortal shackles, now returns, to drag his own body. The spiritual and physical separation of Zarathustra is an example of the living and dead being: at the beginning of the book, Zarathustra has most clearly chosen life. Moreover, he has decided that God, or the spiritual side, is "Dead", i.e., that only the physical self exists. "All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do you want toeven go back to the beasts rather than overcome man" (Nietzsche, 125). The soul and the body are not equal, and to believe in life af ter death is to deny current life "Do not believe those who speak to you of otherworldly hopes!...Despisers of life are they, decaying and poisoned themselvesso let them go" (Nietzsche, page 125). What Nietzsche appears to be saying here is that those who focus upon life-after-death, to the detriment of the physical present, are no different from suicides, who also long for death (for different reasons); Nietzsche seems to condemn both as poisonous to other men. He also attacks them later, in "On the afterworldly": "It is not in afterworlds and redemptive drops of blood, but in the body, that they too have most faithbut a sick thing it is to them, and gladly would they shed their skins. Therefore they listen to the preachers of death and themselves preach afterworlds." (Nietzsche, page 145). Those who hanker after the afterworld, the life-beyond-death, are too fond of their bodies to let go, but at the same time, their desire to continue with their lives leads to an obsession with d eath, and life after death, that denies the very body they admire. Those who wish to live on after death are followed in almost biblical procession by those who despise the body. Nietzsche is very sarcastic about these teachers: "I would not have them learn and teach differently, but merely say farewell to their own bodies - and thus become silent" (Nietzsche, page 146). He contrasts the self with the body: "Your self itself wants to die and turns away from life" (Nietzsche, page 147). The chapter which criticizes "The Preachers of Death", again suggests that those who despise the body are suicidal: ""These are the preachers of death; and the earth is full of those to whom one must preach renunciation of life" (Nietzsche, 156). He uses very withering sarcasm, seeming to cut back their ideals to the basic premise: "The earth is full of the superfluous; life is spoiled by the all-too-many. May they

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Sociological Imagination Essay

Sociological Imagination Essay INTRODUCTION Definition of sociological imagination Sociological theories describe causes and effects of human behavior; study the social life, and society. Above definition displays two concepts: human being at the micro level and society at the macro level. Sociological imagination is a sociological theory that encapsulates these two concepts: individual, and society (What is Sciology). An individual is an element of society. The society acts forces on this element. Sociological imagination enables the individual to identify these forces, their impacts. Sociological imagination is the ability of connecting micro level to the macro level, and distinguishing personal troubles and social issues. Importance of sociological imagination External act of an individual displays what one does, which is the result of cause and effect. The cause aspect defines why one acts in a specific way. Individual act also displays the structural arrangement of a society at a location and a historical point of civilization. Individual act, history, and location are intertwined. Sociological imagination demonstrates how an individual perceives the social forces, as well as the cause and effect relationship of an individual or group of individuals with social issues or social forces. This is why we should care for sociological imagination. Examples In India, many centuries ago, widow women used to commit ritualistic suicide by being burnt alive along with the dead husband. The act of widow women was the result of social forces that existed during that time in India (Deducing with sociological imagination). In John Grishams novel A Time to Kill, the African American Carl Lee Hailey kills two white men who raped and killed his little daughter Tonya. Acts of the white men and Carl Lee Hailey were the result of social forces that existed in social groups in the USA at that time. The social force in this case was racism. Two white men raped and killed Tonya because she was black. Carl Lee killed the white rapists because he knew justice would not prevail for white men (A time to kill 2008). Thesis statement When I analyze my own life through sociological imagination, I am able to explain my acts and social forces behind them. If I can distinguish, good and bad acts using wisdom then I can change my behavior and worldview. Conflict theory envisioned a society as fragmented into groups. More powerful social groups exert forces on less powerful groups. Social imagination discloses the characteristics of social forces when and only when individuals interact with these forces. SOCIAL CONTEXT Definition of social context In a net shell, sociological imagination is an interaction between an individual and social forces. This abstraction points towards the concept of existence of correlation between psychology and sociology. Social context theory reveals this relationship and show societal and social changes over the passage of time, explains the causes that brought changes and offers future change patterns. The model includes three factors: micro socialization process through the behavior of individual and collective of individuals, macro social forces through the social structure, and time (Social context theory). Social context theory is analyzed through social environment dimension and time dimension. Social environment dimension consists of social structures that shape the behavior of individual or group of individuals, social process demonstrates how individuals perceive, interpret and interact with the social structures, and social behavior represents the social realities through behavior of ind ividuals. Time dimension enacts the power of the existing societal forces in maintaining social behavior patters (Social context theory). Social imagination acknowledges the existence of interaction between individual or group of individuals and social forces. Social context theory explains how and why the relationship emerged and what changes the relationship could bring over the passage of time. Specific socio-historical force 1 I lived in Russian part of the Ex-Soviet Union. During mid 1980s, countrys economic conditions started deteriorating. By late 1980s absence of adequate commodities started hurting public. Bad economy as a social structure shaped individuals behaviors with the concept that Russian Federation was feeding the parasites, non-Russians, so Russians must abandon them, the non-Russians. When social structure (bad economy) and social process (individuals interaction) came into conflict, it resulted the break up of the country. Specific socio-historical force 2 I was born and raised in Palestine. Social structure was poor economy, poor living conditions, fundamental religious belief, and constant aggression from Israel. Social process was my perception about Israel and their politics towards Palestine. Poverty, religion, and bad living environment shaped my behavior. My perception was to change living environment, which I found in cooperation with Israel. I voted for peace roadmap with Israel. How your social context could be different Imagine I am living in the USA during the period of segregation. I am an African American. The social structure created by European whites suppressed my rights; I cannot get proper education, proper job, and even a decent place to live. Now, guess I live in the USA when the country has a president who is an African American. It took a long time to make this change, however, now I have equal rights as whites. SOCIAL LOCATION Definition of social location The concept social imagination assigns two attributes: an individual or group of individuals and social forces. Social imagination defines the interaction of an individual or group of individuals with social forces. At the same time, the individual is a character located at a certain place in the society. In American society, white, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant, male, heterosexual, upper middle-class, educated, older defines social location of a person (Social location). Social location defines a persons place in their particular social order. A persons bias, belief, and values are shaped based on social locations. Gender, color, economic level, coming from the village or town, healthy or sick, young or old; these are some of attributes of social location. Individuals from similar social location create their own social hierarchy. Social hierarchy classifies individuals in a group based on esteem, prestige, economic success, and accumulation of wealth into social classes. Description of social location I am from India, a country with 1.22 billion populations. I am male, less than 25, from town, literate, which respectively corresponds to 50 %, 51 %, 75 %, and 28 % of the total population. From the economic standpoint, 18 % constitutes rich and upper middle class, 23 % constitute middle class, and 59 % of the total population are poor. I belong to the 18 % social class (Indias middle class population 2011; Indias population 2012). Personal experience #1 My childhood social location should be classified than middle class. I faced absence of money in fulfilling a childs desire of purchasing toys. Personal experience #2 Teenage years were financially little better, but my parents still were unable to pay tuition for schools with better teachers, and technology. I studied in schools for children from underprivileged families. Personal experience #3 In college years, I became interested in Marxism and concept of conflict theory. Years of impoverished economic conditions contributed social imagination that rich and upper middle class are greedy and want to keep the middle class economically handcuffed forever. RELATIVE CULTURE Personal beliefs, values, or attitudes #1 Edward Taylor defined culture as a complex of behavior pattern and perception which includes knowledge, beliefs, morals, customs, ethics and any other skill and habits acquired by man as a member of society (What is culture?). At the same time, belief, customs, and ethics are relative to individual within his own social context. This is how anthropologist explains comparative culture concept (What is culture relativism?). Sociological imagination is interaction between individual or group of individuals acts and social forces. Individual act is a function of social process; hence, it characterizes consciousness of individuals. Perception, on the other hand, is a function of relative culture. Belief, morals, ethics form the foundation of human perception and its value varies from one social context to other. Social imagination relates to the culture. Personal beliefs, values, or attitudes #2 My social location is poor class in India. Belief, morals, customs relate to orthodox Hindu religion. This culture determines my social context. Hindu religion believes cows are sacred animals. On the other hand, Muslims of the society sacrifice cows in the name of their religion. Social imagination is to make protest to this practice and stop sacrificing cows in the name of religion. Personal beliefs, values, or attitudes #3 I am a Palestinian youth, spend the life in the ghetto in poverty; this is my social location. Belief, morals, customs and ethics relate to fundamental Muslim culture. Social context is formed by the fundamental culture. I perceive that Israel is the cause of my personal problems. Social imagination is to change Israeli attitude toward Palestinians. That is way; I am a member of Hamaz political party. Personal beliefs, values, or attitudes # 4 Social location rich, male, middle aged, an Arab, and an owner of an industry that feeds 300 families. I believe my financial position is vital for the well being of employees. However, due to the economic downturn, the plant has stopped several employee support activities and has reduced salary by 15 %. Employees are blaming me for their personal financial problems. Employees are also blaming that the owner has not reduced own expenses. Employees have taken vows to fight me back. My social imagination is to suppress these new social forces with the help of countrys law enforcement agency. CONCLUSION Sociological imagination to a certain extent accepts Marxs conflict theory and agrees that society is divided into fragmented classes with respective social, political and economic power. Conflict arises when a class or group feels social forces from other classes. Social imagination theory recognizes that social behavior is a result of social culture.

Monday, January 20, 2020

The Sun Essay -- Sun Solar Power Solar System Essays

The Sun   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The sun is the largest object in the solar system. It is a middle-sized star and there are many other stars out in the universe just like it. Even though it is only a middle-sized star it is large enough to hold over 1 million Earth’s inside if it were hollow. The temperature on the sun is far too much for any living thing to bear. On the surface it is 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit and the core is a stunning 27,000,000 degrees Fahrenheit. But don’t worry we are over 90,000 million miles away, the sun could never reach us, at least not yet. The sun is a still a middle aged star and later in its life it will become a Red Giant. In this stage it will get bigger, and closer to us causing a temperature increase and most likely the end of the world as we know it, but this will not take place for quite some time.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  But the sun is not our enemy, if it weren’t for that big ball of burning gas there would be no life on this planet at all. We need its heat, its light, and its energy. Without these our planet would be frozen over like a big ice cube and there would be no signs or traces of life ever. In total amount the sun provides about 2 pounds of energy to us every day. Yes, that’s right only 2 pounds. The sun evaporates water from the earth’s lakes, streams, and rivers. It also heats the earth and cools the earth at the same time. Without the Earth’s atmosphere to protect us from the sun’s ultraviolet rays we would be toast. This is kind of how the greenhouse effect takes place. The greenhouse effect is when the atmosphere of the earth traps heat from the sun and lets sunlight heat plants, yet prevents much of the heat from getting out. In a similar way, the atmosphere lets sunlight through to the surface of the earth. The sunlight warms th e earth, but the heat that created cannot easily pass back through the atmosphere into space.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Now what is going on in the sun? When we look up we just see a bright object that makes us warm, sometimes gives us sunburn and gives us light, on the contrary. The sun is a mass of incandescent gas, a gigantic nuclear furnace where hydrogen is built into helium at a temperature of millions of degrees. The sun is so hot that everything on it is a gas. About 75% of the sun is made up of hydrogen, about 23% is helium and the remaining percent consist of iron, copper, aluminum, and about 70 more elements that are comm... ... as Stonehenge, to see the suns shadow and tell the time of day. Ancient people also used the sun to tell directions, they knew that it rose in the east and set in the west everyday, and that one whole day was the time it took the sun to get from one edge of the horizon to the other. Ancient calendars were based on the phases of the moon. The phases occur because sunlight reflected by the moon is seen from different angles as the moon circles the earth. Even today the sun has an important role in surveying and navigating people. Surveyors can use the sun to calculate their own position and other positions on the earth.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Well, that about does it as a summary for the sun. Even though this essay may have brought out some true facts about the sun there is still much more to know about the sun. Some stuff we don’t even know about the sun and may never know, but what we do know is good. We know that it is the largest object in the solar system, it is the size of 1 million earth’s and it hotter than 27,000,000 in the core, now that’s cooking.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Bibliography 1.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The World Book Encyclopedia, â€Å"sun† Robert W. Noyes 2.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Why the sun shines 3.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Science Book

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Research Paper on William James and Functionalism

PSY 101 4/7/13 â€Å"William James and Functionalism† I. Introduction William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist who had trained as a physician. He was the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States. James wrote influential books on pragmatism, psychology, educational psychology, the psychology of religious experience, and mysticism. He was the brother of novelist Henry James and of diarist Alice James. In the summer of 1878, William James married Alice Gibbens. William James was born at the Astor House in New York City.He was the son of Henry James Sr. , a noted and independently wealthy theologian well acquainted with the literary and intellectual elites of his day. The intellectual brilliance of the James family milieu and the remarkable epistolary talents of several of its members have made them a subject of continuing interest to historians, biographers, and critics. James also worked on man y theories included functionalism which is the second paradigm in Psychology. According to William James, functionalism assumed that the human mind served an adaptive role.It explored the function of thoughts and behaviors. II. What is functionalism in Psychology? Functionalism is a theory of the mind in contemporary psychology, developed largely as an alternative to both the identity theory of mind and behaviorism. This theory is built on the premise that human mental states (beliefs, desires, pain, etc. ) are constituted solely by their functional role — that is, they are causal relations to other mental states, sensory inputs, and behavioral outputs . Functionalism is a theoretical level between physical implementation and behavioral output.Therefore, it is different from its predecessors of Cartesian dualism (advocating discrete mental and physical substances) and Skinnerian behaviorism and physicalism (declaring only physical substances): It is only concerned with the ef fective functions of the brain. Since mental states are identified by a functional role, they are said to be realized on multiple levels. In other words, they are able to be manifested in various systems as long as the system performs the appropriate functions. While computers are physical devices with electronic substrate that perform omputations on inputs to give outputs, our brains also act as physical devices with neural substrate that perform computations on inputs which produce behaviors. â€Å"The Principles of Psychology† is a monumental text in the history of psychology, written by William James and published in 1890. James's psychology included four methods: analysis (i. e. , the logical criticism of precursor and contemporary views of the mind), introspection (i. e. , the psychologist's study of his own states of mind), experiment (e. g. , in hypnosis or neurology), and comparison (i. . , the use of statistical means to distinguish norms from anomalies). III. The p aradigm of functionalism The subject matter of psychology: Psychology is the study of mental activity (e. g. perception, memory, imagination, feeling, judgment). Mental activity is to be evaluated in terms of how it serves the organism in adapting to its environment. The methods of psychology: Mental acts can be studied through introspection, the use of instruments to record and measure; and objective manifestations of mind, through the study of its reations and products, and through the study of anatomy and physiology. The functionalists tended to use the term ‘function' rather loosely. The term is used in at least two different ways. It can refer to the study of how a mental process operates. This is a major departure from the study of the structure of a mental process, the difference between stopping a train to tear it apart to study its parts (structuralism), and looking at how the systems interact while it is running (functionalism). The term ‘function' can also ref er to how the mental process functions in the volution of the species, what adaptive property it provides that would cause it to be selected through evolution. Functionalism never really died, it became part of the mainstream of psychology. The importance of looking at process rather than structure is a common attribute of modern psychology. As an individual approach it lacked a clear formulation and inherited the problems of the structuralist reliance on introspection. IV. William James’ approach on functionalism Unlike Many Psychologist who were interested on structuralism (structures of the mind), WilliamJames instead was interested in consciousness and how it functions in individuals, especially in relation to behavior. James’s psychology experiments with his students tended to be more curious adventures in consciousness and practical application. James taught at Harvard University from 1878-1890. During this time, he completed his renowned psychological work: â₠¬Å"The Principles of Psychology† in which he elucidated his functionalist insight into such subjects as consciousness, habit, and emotion. He was also became over saturated with the subject of functionalism and psychologyV. Functionalism vs. Structuralism As soon as psychology started to gain scientific relevance, so started the debate over how it was most appropriate to describe behavior and the human mind. Structuralism was first introduced by Wilhelm Wundt. It was then formally named and established by one of his students named Edward B. Tichener who broke away from many of the previous ideas put forward by Wundt. Structuralism aims to describe the structure of the mind in terms of the most primitive elements of mental experience. It focused on the breaking down of the brains mental rocesses into its basic components. These basic components were then attempted to be discovered by a method known as introspection. Introspection can be defined as the examination or observation of one’s own mental and emotional processes. Structuralism is based on the idea tha t the aim of psychology is to investigate how the elements are relate to each other which is done by the study into sensations, images and feelings. Functionalism was formulated as a reaction to structuralism and aims to explain mental processes in a more accurate manner than structuralism.It does this by focusing on the purpose of consciousness and behavior. It was brought forward by William James (1842-1910) and was derived from the theory of natural selection created by Darwin which suggests that unless characteristics of a species, including the processes in the brain, served some sort of purpose they would not be selected over time by nature and would not have survived. There are weaknesses to both approaches. Structuralism was criticized for lacking reliability in its results due to the study of the structure of the mind being too subjective. Others argue that it was oo concerned with i nternal behavior that cannot be easily observed and therefore not easily measured. It could also be argued that everyday psychological problems cannot be solved by looking at the sensations of them alone and the mental operations that are promoted by functionalism have to be considered. VI. Conclusion Functionalism formed as a reaction to the structuralism and was heavily influenced by the work of William James and the evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin. Functionalists sought to explain the mental processes in a more systematic and accurate manner.Rather than focusing on the elements of consciousness, functionalists focused on the purpose of consciousness and behavior. Functionalism also emphasized individual differences, which had a profound impact on education. Work Cited: * James, William. The principle of Psychology. Vol. 1 and 2. 1890. Dover publications 1950. * James, William. Psychology (Briefer Course) (1892) University of Notre Dame Press 1985: Dover Publications 2001. * Wade, Carole. Tavris, Carole. Psychology Tenth Edition. Upper Saddle River. Pearson Education 2011, 2008, 2006. * http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/William_James

Friday, January 3, 2020

Origins of Leadership and Power Essays - 2720 Words

This paper will study the different facets of leadership and power in small group interactions. The variety and number of studies that have focused on leadership and power attest to the importance and ambiguousness that surround any attempts to define their origins or implications. First, the definitions of leadership and power from a social psychological viewpoint will be presented. Then a discussion will follow examining the effect of different variables on the leadership effectiveness and then a look at the convergence of power and leadership and their interrelationship. Leadership Leadership is an important element in the functioning of group interactions toward an organized goal. Leadership has been defined in many†¦show more content†¦Departing from the theoretical definitions of leadership in terms of assumptions of group members and the use of broad terms like power and characteristics best suited are definitions that are more practical in nature. Leadership can also be defined as the person or persons who possess directive roles in any group interaction (Hollander, 1985). All of these theorists definitions of leadership stress the fact that leadership is not a one-person social process. In order for a person to be a successful leader and exhibit those leadership skills which are accepted and praised by the dominant culture, there must be followers, or people whom the leader can lead (Hollander, 1985). The discussion of the qualities of leaders and origins of leadership will follow the detailing of the theoretical definition of power. Power Power is broadly defined by sociologists as the capacity of one person to achieve purposes without the consent of or against the resistance of others (Hewitt, 2000). There have been attempts to measure the social power of those deemed to possess it, to determine the level of their potential influence. 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